AbdomenPosterior (3rd) division of the insect body (other divisions are the head and thorax)
AedeagusThe insertion organ of the male genitalia.
AnnualPlant that lives for only one growing season
AntennaPaired sensory structure located on the head.
AnteriorReferring to the front position.
ApterousWithout wings
ArtheropodaA phylum of animals that have segmented bodies, exoskeletons, and jointed legs.
Augmentative Biological ControlWhen natural enemies are missing from an agricultural setting, or are too scarce to provide control, their numbers can be increased by making releases of natural enemies. This can be done either inoculative or inundative. Inoculative augmentative releases are those in which small numbers of natural enemies are introduced early in the crop production cycle.
Bacillus thuringiensisA bacterium causing diseases in insects
BasalNear the base of a structure
BLBBean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata)
BPMVBean pod mottle virus
BtBacillus thuringiensis
CanopyLeafy parts of plants or trees
CaterpillarImmature stage of insects in the order Lepidoptera. It has chewing mouthparts and is often the cause of damage of vegetables crops
CaudaPointed tip of aphid abdomen
CerciA pair of joint appendages at the tip of the abdomen
ChlorophyllGreen pigments of plants that are used to capture energy from sunlight
ChloroticAn unusual or abnormal yellow color of green leaves or other parts of plants
ChorionOuter layer of insect eggs
ChrysalisA term used for some pupae of some Lepidoptera
CocoonA silken case which encloses the pupa of some insects
Compound eyeAn eye made of many individual eye elements each represented externally by a corneal facet.
CorniclesThe pair of small tubular outgrowths which occur on the hind end of the abdomen of an aphid
CostalReferring to the anterior portion of a wing.
CoxaBasal segment of insect leg
CotyledonsFirst pair of leaves developed by the embryo of a seed plant or some lower plants
CrochetsSmall hooks on the prolegs of caterpillars
Cross resistanceRestance of pests to a pesticide to which it has not been exposed that accompanies the development of resistance to a pesticide to which it has been exposed
CruciferMember of the plant family Cruciferae including cabbage, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, radish, and kohlrabi
CSSVCocoa swollen shoot virus
CTVCocoa trinidad virus
CultivarAn agricultural plant variety or strain
CWWCabbage webworm (Hellula undalis)
DBMDiamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)
DefoliatorInsects that feeds on leaves and removes either portions of or the entire leaf from the plant leaving the plant partially or completely defoliated
Degree-dayUnit combining temperature and time, used to measure growth of organisms
DiapauseA period of dormancy (hibernation) in arthropods
DistalThat part of an appendage farthest from the body.
DistributionLocation of all habitats in which the species lives and reproduces.
DorsalReferring to the upper surface
EclosionThe hatching of the larvae or nymph from its egg
EFSBEggplant fruit and shoot borer
ElytraHardened forewings that protect the membranous hindwings in beetles
EndemicRestricted in distribution to particular region
EndoparasiteA parasite living within the body of its host
EpidermisOuter cellular layer of the body
ExoparasiteA parasite living on the outside of its host.
ExoskeletonThe outside structure of an arthropod supporting the body
ExoticNot naturally present in an area.
ExuviaeThe cast (shed) exoskeleton of an arthropod.
F.Fabricius (name of a describer of an insect species)
FecundIn reference to an insect that will produce a large number of eggs or young
FemurA segment of the leg between trochanter and tibia
FleaAn insect in the order Siphonaptera. It is a small compressed (from one side to the other) pest that is found on the skin of cats, dogs, and other mammals. It jumps rather long distances when disturbed
ForewingThe front pair of wings; usually covering the hindwings when the insect does not fly.
FrassSolid waste excreted by the insect through the anus. It often makes vegetables dirty and lowers their value. Also referred to as fecal matter
FumigationApplication of pesticides in gas form
FungicidePesticide used to control fungi
GenerationIn reference to insects, it is a group of individuals born, living, and feeding during the same period of time
GenitaliaCopulation organs, modified abdominal segments
GerminateIn reference to plants, it means to begin to grow as a seed sprouts
GirdleTo cut away the outer surfaces of a stem or a petiole in a ring around a plant
GregariousIn reference to insects that characteristically live and feed together as a group or an army
Half-moonSomething shaped like a crescent or one half of a circle
HalteresClub-shaped balancing organs, which flies have in place of the hindwings
HaNPVHelicoverpa armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus
HerbivorePlant eating animal
HibernationA type of animal dormancy that occurs during the winter months
HolotypeThe single specimen designated as the �type� by the author of the original description
HindwingSecond pair of wings, often covered by the frontwings when the insect rests.
HoneydewA secretion of the insect, which comes out from the posterior end of its body. it is rich in some sugars and is an excellent medium for the growth of some fungi. It is also the favored food of some ants
Horticultural oilPetroleum or botanical oil used to control pests
HostOrgansim that provides food and or shelter for another organism
HyperparasiteA parasite which parasites another parasite
ICMIntegrated crop management
ImagoThe adult stage of an insect
ImmatureIn reference to the development of an insect, it is an individual that is not mature or not fully developed. Often it is the particular stage that causes damage to vegetable crops
InfectionEntry and establishment of a pathogen into a host
InfestationPresence of pests in a field
InsecticidePesticide used to control insects
InstarOne stage of growth between egg and adult
Integrated Pest ManagementAn approach that prevents damage by pests through a combination of environmentally sound techniques
IntegumentOuter layer, cuticle of an insect
Inundative Biological ControlInundative augmentation is the mass release of natural enemies to suppress pest population growth. Inundative natural enemy releases can not be used in �curative� manner to reduce pest populations to non-damaging levels once they have reached economically injurious densities because natural enemies can not immediately control pest populations in a manner similar to insecticides.
IPMIntegrated pest management
JuvenileStages between egg and adult form; immature forms of nematodes
LarvaThe immature stage of an insect. It is wormlike in appearance and may or may not have legs. It has chewing mouthparts and can cause damage to vegetable cops
LateralPertaining to the sides (that is. left or right side)
LesionA localized area of damage or infection
Life cycleThe series of stages in form and activity that an insect passes through from life to death
LooperA caterpillar that moves by looping (placing the rear end of the body next to the thorax before extending the front part) its body
MaggotThe immature stage of insects belonging to the order Diptera, the flies. Typically it is white, broad at one end and tapering to the other. Some species damage vegetables crops. Larvae are legless
MandiblePair of jaws in insects
MaxillaDorsal jaw plate
MesothoraxMiddle or second segment of the thorax
MetamorphosisChange in form during development
Microbial pesticideMicrobial organisms applied like pesticides
MicropyleIn eggs specialized channels, which enable a single sperm to swim down through the egg's surface
Mid-veinThe middle vein that runs along the length of the leaf. It arises in the vicinity of the leaf stem or petiole
MimicryThe ability of an insect to mimic another animal species or plant (in color, form, behavior)
Mineral oilHorticultural oil derived from petroleum
MiticidePesticide used to control mites
MoldA fungus of the order Mucorales. A woolly growth that often forms on damp or decaying surfaces. Certain molds can grow in and on some excretions of insects
MoltShedding of the pouter body in order to attain the adult stage
MonitoringPest scouting, observation of pest abundance and damage
MosaicA virus disease of plants which characteristically causes a yellow and green mottling of the foliage
MothThe adult stage of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera. It has sucking mouthparts and does not cause feeding damage to vegetable crops. Normally it is active only at night
MulchMaterial placed on the soil to suppress weed growth
MummyRemains of an aphid after consumed by a parasitoid
NeemBotanical insecticide derived from the neem tree, main active ingredient is Azadirachtin
NocturnalActive at night
NPVNuclear polyhedrosis virus
NymphAn immature wingless stage of an insect after hatching, in species that does not have a pupal stage
OcellusThe single-faceted simple eye of an insect.
OmnivorousHaving a broad diet
OothecaA case or cover of an egg mass, commonly found in grasshoppers, cockroaches, and mantids
OrganophosphateClass of synthetic insecticides
OviparousReproduction through depositing eggs
OvipositorEgg laying apparatus of some insects
PalpsSensory appendages attached to the mouth
ParasiteAn animal that lives on or in the body of another animal (its host). Parasites usually do not kill their hosts
ParasitoidA parasite that kills its host
ParatypeA specimen that was before the author at the time of preparation of the original description and was designated by the author.
ParthogenesisDevelopment from an egg that is not fertilized
PathogenMicrobial organism causing a disease
PedicelA small stalk or stem bearing a fruit, flower, or leaf
PedipalpsAppendages attached to the head, consist of six segments and used primarily to handle food
PesticideMaterial that kills pests and is used for pest control
PetioleThe slender stem that supports the leaf of a plant
PheromoneA substance given off by insects which causes a specific reaction to members of the same species (including trail making pheromones, sex attractants, alarm substances)
Phoretic behaviourThe use of one organism by another organism as a means of transport.
PhytopagousFeeding on plants or plant products
PhytotoxicityDamage to a plant through contact with a chemical toxin
PosteriorHind or rear
Preoviposition periodThe period between molting to the adult and the laying of the first eggs.
PrepupaeActive but non-feeding stage of an insect preceding the pupal stage
ProlegShort appendage on the abdomen of some caterpillars that act as legs. Many caterpillars have prolegs
PronotumThe dorsal body plate of the first section of the thorax, frequently enlarged in many insects
ProthoraxThe most forward of the three thoracic segments of an insect. The prothorax never bears wings
PupaDevelopment stage between larva and adult in insects with a complete metamorphosis
PupationThe process the insects go through when it pupates or becomes a pupa. The pupa is the immature stage of the insect just prior to becoming an adult. It is a stage where many body changes occur. The pupa does not damage vegetables crops
PyrethroidsSynthetic insecticides similar to the pyrethrum toxin
PyrethrumNatural insecticide derived from Chrysanthemum plants
ResistanceTolerance to conditions or materials that are deleterious
RostrumIn weevils the snout-like prolongation of the head containing the mouth
SaprophagousFeeding on dead plant or animal tissue
ScaleA flattened seta on the insects surface
ScleriteA hardened body wall plate of insects delimited by sutures of membranous areas.
ScutellumA segment of the pronotum, most notable in true bugs, cicadas, and beetles. In stink bugs the triangular shield between the folded wings
SegmentA subdivision of the body
SenescenceThe time period after maturity
SerrateNotched like the teeth of a saw
Sex-pheromoneA chemical substance produced by an individual insect to obtain a response from another insect of the same species
SkeletonizingA type of leaf damage caused by insects with chewing mouthparts. They actually consume leaf tissue in a manner, which leaves a basic skeleton or framework of the leaf intact
SnoutA prolongation of the head. This is a common characteristic of weevils. At a glance the insects look as though they have piercing-sucking mouthparts. Actually they have chewing mouthparts located at the end of the snout
Sooty moldDark colored fungus growing on the honey-dew secreted by insects, often aphids
SpeciesGroup of potentially inbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups.
SpermatophoreA packet of sperm
SpineAn erect, usually sharp-pointed projection from the body of an insect. It is slightly thicker than a normal insect hair
SpiracleA pore to breathe for insect, external opening of the tracheal respiratory system
SporeReproductive stage of a fungus
spp.species (plural)
StyletA part of a sucking mouthpart, needle like structure
TarsusLast three to five divisions of the leg, beyond the tibia
TaxonomyThe study of the general principles of scientific classification
TegmenLathery, narrow, nearly parallel sided forewings of Orthoptera.
TerpeneA chemical compound. Any of the virus isomeric hydrocarbons found present in essential oils. An example is turpentine
ThoraxMiddle of the three major regions of an insect
ThripsThe common name of tiny insects belonging to the order Thysanoptera. Some species damage vegetable crops
TibiaSection of an insect leg between femur and tarsus
TMVTobacco mosaic virus
ToMVTomato mosaic virus
Tracheal systemTomato mosaic virusRespiratory system of insects.
Trap cropA crop intended to lure insects away from the main crop
TrichomesHairs or spines on plant surfaces
TrochanterA small section of the leg connecting coax and femur
TubercleProjection on the elytron, knob-like
TypeThe single specimen that bears the name of species and from which the species was described.
VectorAn organism like an insect or mite that transmit a pathogen to a plant
VeinA tube running to the wings of insects
VentralUnderside of the body, the opposite of dorsal
VirulenceAbility of a pathogen to infect a host
VirusThe causative agent of an infectious disease
ViviparousReproduction by means of live birth instead of laying eggs
WiltIn reference to the condition of plant leaves that become weak and droop. They lose their freshness due to lack of water